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Unilateral hydronephrosis is swelling of one kidney due to a backup of urine.
See also: Bilateral hydronephrosis
Hydronephrosis is a condition that occurs with a disease. It is not a disease itself. Conditions that are often associated with unilateral hydronephrosis include:
Unilateral hydronephrosis occurs in approximately 1 in 100 people.
Note: Sometimes unilateral hydronephrosis does not have symptoms.
Unilateral hydronephrosis is usually identified with tests such as the following:
Treatment and prognosis for unilateral hydronephrosis depend on what is causing the kidney swelling. Treatment may include:
Patients who have only one kidney, who have immune-compromising disorders such as diabetes or HIV, or who have received a transplant should be treated promptly.
Preventative antibiotics may be prescribed to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections in patients who have long-term hydronephrosis.
Prolonged hydronephrosis results in the eventual loss of kidney function.
If hydronephrosis is left untreated, the affected kidney may be permanently damaged. Kidney insufficiency or kidney failure is rare with unilateral hydronephrosis because the other kidney usually functions normally. However, if the patient has only one functioning kidney, kidney failure will occur.
Call your health care provider if you have prolonged or severe flank pain, or if you suspect hydronephrosis.
Prevention of the disorders associated with unilateral hydronephrosis will prevent this condition.
Frøkiaer J, Zeidel ML. Urinary tract obstruction. In: Brenner BM, ed. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 35.